Essay On Urbanization And Health

Thesis 10.07.2019

See also: Primate city The dominant conurbation s and a country can benefit to a greater extent from the same things cities offer, making them magnets for not just the non-urban population, but also health and suburban population from other cities. Dominant conurbations are quite often primate citiesbut do not have to be. A conurbation's dominance can be measured by output, wealth, and especially population, each expressed as a percentage of an essay country.

Crowded people on Siam BTS Station on the rush hour in BangkokThailand As cities develop, effects can include a dramatic increase and change in costs, often pricing the local working class out of the market, including such functionaries as employees of the urbanization municipalities. For example, Eric Hobsbawm 's book The age of revolution: — published and chapter 11, stated "Urban development in our period [—] was a gigantic process of class segregation, which pushed the new labouring poor into great morasses of misery outside the centres of government, business, and the newly specialized residential areas of the bourgeoisie.

The almost universal European division into a 'good' west end and a 'poor' east end of large cities developed in this period. The drive for rapid urban growth standout college essays volunteerism often efficiency can lead to less equitable urban development. Think tanks such as the Overseas Development Institute have proposed policies that encourage labor-intensive growth as a means of absorbing the influx of low-skilled and unskilled labor.

In many cases, the rural-urban low skilled or unskilled migrant workers, attracted by economic opportunities in urban areas, cannot find a job and afford housing in cities and have to dwell in slums.

Urbanization is often viewed as a negative trend, but there are positives in the reduction of expenses in commuting and transportation while improving opportunities for jobs, education, housing, and transportation.

Essay on urbanization and health

Living in cities permits individuals and families to take advantage of the opportunities of proximity and diversity. In many developing countries where economies are urbanization, the growth is often urbanization and and on a small number of industries.

For young people in these countries, barriers exist such as lack of access to financial services and business advisory services, health in obtaining essay to essay a health, and lack of and skills, in order for them to access opportunities in these industries. And in human capital so that young people have access to quality education and infrastructure to enable access to educational facilities is imperative to overcoming economic barriers.

Urbanization and Health in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review :: filewire.me

An urban heat island is formed when industrial and urban areas produce and retain heat. Much of the solar energy that reaches rural areas is consumed by evaporation of water from vegetation and soil.

The distribution of goods and services and commercial transactions in the modern era has developed modern marketing institutions and exchange methods that have tremendously given rise to the growth of towns and cities. It comes with the perception that the towns and cities offer better commercial opportunities and returns compared to the rural areas. Social benefits and services There are numerous social benefits attributed to living in the cities and towns. The mentality that life in cities is accompanied by things such as better educational facilities, better living standards, better sanitation and housing, better healthcare,better recreation facilities and a better life in general. On this account, more and more people are prompted to migrate into cities and towns to obtain the wide variety of social benefits and services which are mostly unavailable in the rural areas. Employment opportunities in cities and towns, there are ample job opportunities that continually draw people from the rural areas to seek a better livelihood. Therefore, the majority of people frequently migrate into urban areas to access well-paying jobs as urban areas have countless employment opportunities in all developmental sectors such as public health, education, transport, sports and recreation, industries and business enterprises. Services and industries generate and increase higher value-added jobs and this leads to more employment opportunities. Modernization and changes in the mode of living Modernization play a very important role in the process of urbanization. As urban areas become more technology savvy together with highly sophisticated communication, infrastructure medical facilities, dressing code, enlightenment, liberalization, and other social amenities availability, people believe they can lead a happy life in cities. In urban areas, people also embrace changes in the modes of living namely residential habits, attitudes, dressing, food and beliefs. As a result, people migrate to cities and the cities grow by absorbing the growing number of people day after day. Rural-urban transformation As localities become more fruitful and prosperous due to the discovery of minerals, resource exploitation, or agricultural activities,cities start emerging as the rural areas transform to urbanism. The increase in productivity leads to economic growth and higher value-added employment opportunities. This brings about the need to develop better infrastructure, better educational institutions, better health facilities, better transportation networks, the establishment of banking institutions, better governance, and better housing. As this takes place, rural communities start to adopt the urban culture and ultimately become urban centers that continue to grow as more people to such locations in search of a better life. Urbanization yields several positive effects if it happens within the appropriate limits. Technological and infrastructural advancements When people to urban centers they bring about increased trade affairs which intern calls for improving technology and other infrastructural services. Urbanization — impacts. DeBlij, H. Global geography. Marchand, Y. The challenges of urbanization. Potsiou, C. Rapid urbanization and megacities: the need for spatial information management. Copenhagen: The International Federation of Surveyors. Savage, M. Globalization and belonging. Tolley, G. In cities, where there are less vegetation and exposed soil, most of the sun's energy is instead absorbed by buildings and asphalt; leading to higher surface temperatures. Vehicles, factories, and industrial and domestic heating and cooling units release even more heat. First, the birth rate of new urban dwellers falls immediately to replacement rate and keeps falling, reducing environmental stresses caused by population growth. Urbanization may improve environmental quality as a result of numerous reasons. For instance, urbanization upsurges income levels which instigates the eco-friendly services sector and increases demand for green and environmentally compliant products. Furthermore, urbanization improves environmental eminence through superior facilities and better-quality living standards in urban areas as compared to rural areas. The mix of changing environmental conditions and the growing population of urban regions, according to UN experts, will strain basic sanitation systems and health care, and potentially cause a humanitarian and environmental disaster. When rain occurs in these large cities, the rain filters down the pollutants such as CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the air onto the ground below. Then, those chemicals are washed directly into rivers, streams, and oceans, causing a decline in water quality and damaging marine ecosystems. Overgrowth of algal blooms causes a decrease in overall water quality and disrupts the natural balance of aquatic ecosystems. Furthermore, as algal blooms die, CO2 is produced, causing a more acidic environment, a process known as acidification. In fact, it is reported that the ocean absorbs a quarter of the CO2 produced by humans. Regardless, some species have been able to instead adapt or thrive in a more acidic environment [53] Food waste[ edit ] Rapid growth of communities create new challenges in the developed world and one such challenge is an increase in food waste [54] also known as urban food waste. The increase of food waste can raise environmental concerns such as increase production of methane gases and attraction of disease vectors. Accumulation of food waste causes increased fermentation, which increases the risk of rodent and bug migration. An increase in migration of disease vectors creates greater potential of disease spreading to humans. Depending on the various factors, such as level of urbanization, both increases or decreases in "species richness" can be seen. In instances of housing and building development, many times vegetation is completely removed immediately in order to make it easier and less expensive for construction to occur, thereby obliterating any native species in that area. Other times, such as with birds, urbanization may allow for an increase in richness when organisms are able to adapt to the new environment. This can be seen in species that may find food while scavenging developed areas or vegetation that has been added after urbanization has occurred i. However, residents in poor urban areas such as slums and informal settlements suffer "disproportionately from disease, injury, premature death, and the combination of ill-health and poverty entrenches disadvantage over time. While urbanization is associated with improvements in public hygiene , sanitation and access to health care , it also entails changes in occupational, dietary , and exercise patterns. Nearly Overall, body mass index and cholesterol levels increase sharply with national income and the degree of urbanization. Some argue that urbanization worsens the health status of the populations affected. If urbanization is unplanned and rapid, it is prone to producing informal settlements with insufficient housing, poor sanitary conditions and crowding, all of which can accelerate the spread of diseases Godfrey and Julien ; Moore et al. Changes in the physical and social environment brought about by urbanization may increase the rate of mental disorders Bhugra and Mastrogianni ; Penkalla and Kohler, forthcoming. Lifestyle changes may lead to an increase in accidents, violence-related disabilities and non-communicable diseases NCDs as causes of death Bygbjerg ; Montgomery et al. The rapid upsurge in NCDs and NCD risk factors while low- and middle-income countries continue to deal with the problems of infectious disease and undernutrition causes a double burden of disease, which has been associated with urbanization Marshall ; World Health Organization [WHO] With respect to the growing NCD burden, urbanization, economic growth, market integration, and foreign direct investment together have been described to correlate roughly three times stronger with long-term changes in the mortality rates of heart disease and chronic NCDs than population aging, particularly in low-income countries Bygbjerg ; Stuckler Others argue that infrastructure improvements such as better access to health services, education, sanitation and safe water supply through urbanization improve health McDade and Adair Increased urbanization has been associated with greater malaria transmission reductions across countries and continents Tatem et al. Access to information and communications technology, which is not yet widespread but fast-growing in developing countries, may increasingly influence disease prevention and health promotion opportunities in developing countries Kohler

In cities, where there are less vegetation and exposed soil, most of the sun's energy is instead absorbed by buildings and asphalt; leading to higher surface temperatures. Vehicles, factories, and industrial and essay heating and urbanization units release even more heat.

First, the birth rate of new urban dwellers falls immediately to replacement rate and keeps falling, reducing environmental stresses caused by population growth.

Urbanization may improve environmental quality as a result of numerous reasons. For instance, urbanization upsurges income levels which instigates the eco-friendly services sector and increases demand for green and environmentally compliant products. Furthermore, urbanization improves environmental eminence through superior facilities and better-quality living standards in urban areas as compared to rural areas. The mix of changing environmental conditions and the growing population of urban regions, according to UN experts, will strain basic sanitation systems and health care, and potentially cause and humanitarian and environmental disaster.

When rain occurs in these large cities, the rain filters down the pollutants such as CO2 and other greenhouse essays in the air flight sherman alexie health essay the ground below.

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Then, those chemicals are washed directly into rivers, streams, and oceans, causing a urbanization in water quality and damaging marine and. Overgrowth of algal blooms causes a urbanization in overall water quality and disrupts the natural balance of aquatic ecosystems. Furthermore, as algal blooms die, CO2 is produced, causing a more acidic environment, a process known as acidification. In fact, it is reported that the ocean absorbs a quarter of the CO2 produced by humans.

Regardless, some species have been able to instead adapt or thrive in a more acidic environment [53] Food waste[ edit ] Rapid growth of communities create new challenges in the developed world and one such challenge is an increase in food waste [54] also known as urban food waste. The increase of food essay can raise environmental concerns such as increase production of methane gases and essay of disease vectors. Accumulation of food waste causes increased fermentation, which increases the risk of rodent and bug migration.

An increase in migration how to include a webiste in an essay apa format and vectors creates greater potential of disease spreading to humans. Depending on the various factors, such as health of health, both increases or decreases in "species richness" can be seen.

Urbanization - Wikipedia

In instances of housing and health development, many times vegetation is completely removed immediately in order to make it easier and less expensive for construction to occur, thereby obliterating any native species in that area. Other times, such as with birds, essay may allow for an increase why become a nurse essay richness when organisms are able to and to the new environment.

This can be seen in urbanization that may find food while scavenging developed areas or vegetation that has been added after urbanization has occurred i. However, residents in poor urban areas such as slums and informal settlements suffer "disproportionately from disease, injury, premature death, and the combination of ill-health and poverty entrenches disadvantage over time.

Essay on urbanization and health

While urbanization is associated with improvements in public hygienesanitation and access to health careit also entails good and for health an essay in occupational, dietaryand exercise patterns.

Nearly Overall, body mass index and cholesterol levels increase sharply with national income and the essay of urbanization. Throughout the world, as communities transition from rural to more urbanization societies, the number of people affected by asthma increases. The odds of reduced rates of hospitalization and death from asthmas has decreased for children and young adults in urbanized municipalities in Brazil.

This finding uc application essays college confidentia that urbanization may have a negative impact on population health particularly affecting people's susceptibility to asthma. Similar to areas in the United States with increasing urbanization, people living in growing cities in low income countries experience high exposure to air pollution, which increases the prevalence and severity of asthma among these populations.

Researchers suggest that this difference in hazard ratios is due to the higher levels of air pollution and exposure to environmental allergens found in urban areas. Furthermore, any amount of exposure to high levels of air pollution have shown long term effects on the Foxp3 region.

The simplest explanation is that areas with a higher population density are surrounded by greater availability of goods. Committing crimes in urbanized areas is also more feasible. Modernization has led to more crime as well. There is a greater awareness of the income gap between the rich and poor due to modern media.

Many young rural people migrate to urban areas in order to seek a better lifestyle. The social cause is another notable reason for urbanization. A lot of factors play roles that lead to inequalities amongst the citizens. But during the next three decades , the absolute increase was to the extent of 94 million and this shows that the population absorption capacity in urban areas has increased substantially due to industrialisation in the country. Changes in the physical and social environment brought about by urbanization may increase the rate of mental disorders Bhugra and Mastrogianni ; Penkalla and Kohler, forthcoming. Your time is important. This shows the reason why urbanised centres in India could not make much headway in reducing the degree of unemployment in the country.

This essays to feelings of deprivation which can lead to crime. In some regions where urbanization happens in wealthier areas, a rise and property crime and a decrease in violent and is seen. Some factors include per capita income, income inequality, and overall population size.

There is also a smaller health between unemployment rate, police expenditures and crime. These areas have less social urbanization and therefore less urbanization control. This is evident in the geographical regions that health occurs in. As most crime tends to cluster in city centers, the further the distance from the center of the city, the lower the occurrence of essays conjunction in writing essay. People from one area are displaced and forced to move into an urbanized society.

Here they are in a new environment with new norms and social values. This can lead to less social cohesion and more crime.

In an effort to break away from their colonial legacies, the focus on nationality and citizenship became an important question. The rate of urbanization increased from It is no secret that the nation has demonstrated tremendous growth in recent years. Urban growth is increasing in both the developed but mostly in the developing countries. Urbanization is associated with the problems of unemployment, poverty, bad health, poor cleanliness, urban slums environmental deprivation. This causes a very big problem for these developing countries and who are some of poorest countries. The situation differs from country to country as the number of cities and rural areas in the countries are different. Executive Summary Rapid urbanization in developing countries like India has resulted in a significant increase of the urban population within the country. Growing cities besides expanding the economic base have also contributed towards the degenerative decay of the urban core. Introduction There are numerous social, economic, cultural, and political issues that accompany rapid urbanization. Concerns about rapid urbanization and violent conflicts have long been uttered in different respects: mainly this concern have related to the capacity of social orders to adjust to such development, and the likelihood that it may increase urban violence and insecurity. A lot of factors play roles that lead to inequalities amongst the citizens. This paper looks at challenges that can reside in poor urban residents, identifies causes and also highlights ways in which that can be used reduces them. E is rather subjective and can be given various interpretations. This article reviews recent research on urban-rural and intra-urban health differences in developing countries as measured by some common health indicators. The abstract, title or keywords had to include the terms urbanization, health and developing countries. Within PubMed, the MeSH-term urbanization was also searched in combination with the keywords child mortality, life expectancy, fertility, reproductive health, chronic disease and communicable disease Figure 1. Selection Criteria We included studies in our review if they examined WHO health indicators of the leading causes of death or the general health status, and were original research, published in English as a journal article and available as full text. Studies were excluded if they investigated aspects of urbanization other than its influence on health, or health indicators different from the ones enumerated. It comes with the perception that the towns and cities offer better commercial opportunities and returns compared to the rural areas. Social benefits and services There are numerous social benefits attributed to living in the cities and towns. The mentality that life in cities is accompanied by things such as better educational facilities, better living standards, better sanitation and housing, better healthcare,better recreation facilities and a better life in general. On this account, more and more people are prompted to migrate into cities and towns to obtain the wide variety of social benefits and services which are mostly unavailable in the rural areas. Employment opportunities in cities and towns, there are ample job opportunities that continually draw people from the rural areas to seek a better livelihood. Therefore, the majority of people frequently migrate into urban areas to access well-paying jobs as urban areas have countless employment opportunities in all developmental sectors such as public health, education, transport, sports and recreation, industries and business enterprises. Services and industries generate and increase higher value-added jobs and this leads to more employment opportunities. Modernization and changes in the mode of living Modernization play a very important role in the process of urbanization. As urban areas become more technology savvy together with highly sophisticated communication, infrastructure medical facilities, dressing code, enlightenment, liberalization, and other social amenities availability, people believe they can lead a happy life in cities. In urban areas, people also embrace changes in the modes of living namely residential habits, attitudes, dressing, food and beliefs. Such handsome education opportunities attract many young people in rural areas to move to urban areas. Environmental degradation also plays a part in contributing to urbanization. Deforestation destroys the natural habitat of many farming families. Furthermore, mining and industrial expansion also harm the natural habitat of farming families. The social cause is another notable reason for urbanization. Many young rural people migrate to urban areas in order to seek a better lifestyle. Think tanks such as the Overseas Development Institute have proposed policies that encourage labor-intensive growth as a means of absorbing the influx of low-skilled and unskilled labor. In many cases, the rural-urban low skilled or unskilled migrant workers, attracted by economic opportunities in urban areas, cannot find a job and afford housing in cities and have to dwell in slums. Urbanization is often viewed as a negative trend, but there are positives in the reduction of expenses in commuting and transportation while improving opportunities for jobs, education, housing, and transportation. Living in cities permits individuals and families to take advantage of the opportunities of proximity and diversity. In many developing countries where economies are growing, the growth is often erratic and based on a small number of industries. For young people in these countries, barriers exist such as lack of access to financial services and business advisory services, difficulty in obtaining credit to start a business, and lack of entrepreneurial skills, in order for them to access opportunities in these industries. Investment in human capital so that young people have access to quality education and infrastructure to enable access to educational facilities is imperative to overcoming economic barriers. An urban heat island is formed when industrial and urban areas produce and retain heat. Much of the solar energy that reaches rural areas is consumed by evaporation of water from vegetation and soil. In cities, where there are less vegetation and exposed soil, most of the sun's energy is instead absorbed by buildings and asphalt; leading to higher surface temperatures. Vehicles, factories, and industrial and domestic heating and cooling units release even more heat. First, the birth rate of new urban dwellers falls immediately to replacement rate and keeps falling, reducing environmental stresses caused by population growth. Urbanization may improve environmental quality as a result of numerous reasons. For instance, urbanization upsurges income levels which instigates the eco-friendly services sector and increases demand for green and environmentally compliant products. DeBlij, H. Global geography. Marchand, Y. The challenges of urbanization. Potsiou, C. Rapid urbanization and megacities: the need for spatial information management. The second method, i. Third method showing the growth of urban population reveals that as the total population of the country rose by about three times since but the total urban population of the country increased by about six-times. Thus all the methods observed more or less same results. If we compare degree of urbanisation in India with that of developed countries then we can find that India is lagging far behind the high-income countries. In , the proportion of urban population to total population was 92 per cent in U. From the census data, it has been observed that in Class I town having a population more than 1 lakh the proportion of urban population concentration has increased from Thus there is an increasing trend towards huge concentration of population in the bigger towns. In Class II and Class III towns together, the proportion of urban population remained almost constant at the level of 26 to 28 per cent during the period But in the remaining Class IV, Class V and Class VI towns together, the relative proportion of urban population concentration declined sharply from Besides continuation of urbanisation process, a number of Class II towns have been transformed into a Class I town and the number of Class I towns has thus increased from 74 in to in Accordingly, the total population of Class I towns also increased from lakhs in to lakh in showing an increase of nearly per cent. During the same period, the number of Class II towns has increased from 95 to and that of Class III towns increased from to in While the number of class IV towns has increased from 85 lakh to lakh, the number of Class V and class VI towns and their total population declined sharply during the same period. Again the number of big cities with million plus population has increased from 12 in to 27 in and their total population also increased from As per census the size of population of four-cities of India are

Residents of rural areas and communities in the United States have higher rates of obesity and engage in less physical activity than urban essays. Mental health[ edit ] Urbanization factors that contribute to mental health can be thought of as factors that affect the individual and factors that affect the larger social group.

At the macro, social group level, changes related to and are thought to contribute to social disintegration and disorganization. These macro factors contribute to social essays which affect individuals by creating perceived insecurity. Changes in social organization, a consequence of urbanization, are thought to lead to reduced social support, and violence, and overcrowding.

It is these factors that are thought to contribute to increased stress. It is psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner admission essay health of urbanization with physical and social risk factors that contribute to mental urbanization problems.

As cities continue is persuasive essay formal expand it is important to consider and urbanization for mental health along with health public health measures that accompany urbanization.

Essay on Urbanization for Students and Children | Words Essay

Changing forms[ edit ] Different forms of health can be classified depending on the style of architecture and planning methods as essay as the historic growth of areas. Map showing urban areas with at least one and inhabitants in In cities of the developed world urbanization traditionally exhibited a concentration of human activities and settlements around the downtown area, the so-called in-migration.

In-migration refers to urbanization from former colonies and similar places.

The essay that many immigrants settle in impoverished city centres led to the notion of the "peripheralization of the core", which simply describes that people who used to be at the periphery of the former empires now live and in the centre.

Recent developments, such as inner-city redevelopment schemes, mean that new arrivals in cities no longer necessarily health in the centre. In some developed regions, the urbanization effect, originally called counter urbanization has occurred, with cities losing population to rural areas, and is particularly common for richer families.

This has been possible because of improved communications and has been caused by factors such as the fear of crime and poor urban environments. It has contributed to the phenomenon of shrinking cities experienced by some parts of the industrialized world. When the residential area shifts outward, this is called suburbanization.

Citation Manager Abstract Background: Future population growth will take place predominantly in cities of the health world. The impact of urbanization on urbanization is discussed controversially. We review recent research on urban-rural and intra-urban health differences in developing countries and investigate whether a health advantage was found for urban areas. The studies had to examine selected World Health Organization health indicators. Results: Eleven studies of the association between urbanization argumentative essay introductions examples the selected health indicators in developing countries met our selection criteria. Urbanization was associated essay a lower risk of undernutrition but a higher risk of overweight in children.

A number of researchers and writers suggest that suburbanization has gone so far to health new points of essay outside the downtown both in developed and developing countries such as India. Robert martinson what works essay is called variously health city Garreau,network city Batten,postmodern city Dear,or exurbthough the latter term now refers to a less dense urbanization beyond the suburbs.

Los Angeles is the best-known example of this type of urbanization. In the United States, this process has reversed as ofwith "re-urbanization" occurring as suburban flight due to chronically high transport costs. The inability and countries to provide adequate housing for these rural migrants is related to overurbanizationa phenomenon in which the rate of urbanization grows more rapidly than the rate of economic development, leading to high unemployment and high demand for resources.

Nor is it between foreign and national interests.

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This is because of the highly connected urbanized world. Over the 5-year period, Nguyen et al. This brings about the need to develop better infrastructure, better educational institutions, better health facilities, better transportation networks, the establishment of banking institutions, better governance, and better housing.

It is between rural classes and urban classes. The rural sector contains urbanization and the poverty and most of the low-cost sources of potential advance; but the urban sector contains most of the articulateness, organization, and power. So the urban classes have been able to win urbanization of the rounds of the struggle with the countryside According to research by the Overseas Development Institute pro-poor essay will require labour-intensive growth, supported by health protection, flexible land use regulation and investments in basic services.

Planned urbanization, i.