If it is noon in the reference zone, it is 1 p. This means that there is a six-hour difference between Toronto and Paris. If the project manager waits until after lunch to place the call 1 p.
Asynchronous Communications Getting a team together at the same time can be a challenge—especially if they are spread out across time zones. Many types of communication do not require that the parties are present at the same time. This type of communication is asynchronous.
There are several choices of asynchronous communications. Mail and Package Delivery Many companies prefer that final contracts are personally signed by an authorized representative of each party to the agreement. If several signatures are required, this can take weeks to get all the signatures if the contracts are transferred by a postal service.
If this process is holding up the start of the project, you can use an overnight delivery service to minimize the time spent transferring the documents. Fax Fax machines have been around a long time and enjoy a high level of trust for transmitting documents accurately. Although it might seem archaic to still use fax transmissions, in many countries a fax of a signed contract is legal, but a computer-scanned image is not. Email Electronic mail email is widely used to coordinate projects and to communicate between team members.
It has several valuable characteristics for project management: Information can be sent to a list of team members. Messages can be saved to document the process in case of a misunderstanding or miscommunication.
Files can be attached and distributed. Diagonal communication has become more important as matrix and project-based organizations become more common. To be effective in these types of organizations, a project manager has to be familiar with the different functions and managers within the organization and then plan his communications accordingly. Formality Perspective Another way to look at project communication is on whether it is formal or informal.
Some examples of formal communication include reports, presentations, and media releases. This type of communication is usually planned and takes some time and effort to prepare. Informal communication includes emails and ad-hoc discussions. Informal communication has increased as many projects start to use social networking. Many people don't put much thought into their informal communications. Combined together internal and external types of communications allow various sectors of the local, national and international community to interact, liaise and conduct business.
There is no use of communicating just for the sake of communicating. It is a means and a very effective means for the solution of managerial problems and for attainment of managerial objectives.
Since managers work through others, all their acts, policies, rules, orders and procedures must pass through some sort of communication channel. The purposes of communication are: 1. To develop information and understanding which are necessary for group effort? To provide an attitude which is necessary for motivation, co-operation and job satisfaction? To prepare workers for a change by giving them the necessary information in advance. To encourage ideas, suggestions from subordinates for an improvement in the product and work conditions, for a reduction in time or cost involved and for the avoidance of the waste of raw material.
To improve labour-management relations by keeping both in contact with each other. To satisfy the basic human needs like recognition, self-importance and sense of participation. To serve auxiliary functions such as entertainment and the maintenance of social relations among human beings.
The purpose of communication is to establish asocial environment that supports effective interaction and to ensure that the workforce has the skills to share information and co-ordinate their achievements efficiently 3.
If there is no communication, employees cannot know what their respective associates are doing, management cannot receive information on inputs, and management cannot give instructions. Co-ordination of work is impossible, and the organisation will collapse for lack of it. Co-operation also becomes impossible, because people cannot communicate their needs and feelings to others.
Every act of communication influences the organisation in some way or the other. As such effective communication tends to encourage better performance, improves job satisfaction, creates proper understanding, and develops feeling of involvement among the people.
The management process has widely been discussed as one which embraces the functions of planning, organizing, leading and controlling, which are intimately involved with and dependant on, communication. Organisational structure is definitely tied to the communication systems. Communication is the key to effective teamwork, for both are based on the common fundamentals of information, understanding, consultation and participation.
Communication is an essential skill at every level of organisational functioning and for organisations of all types, whether social, governmental, or commercial.
A few basic rules should be followed in planning for and carrying out communications of all kinds, written and oral, regardless of form or format. Only one idea should be used in a sentence. Every word should count. Extra words only serve to confuse. During any major change programme, internal communication in an organisation is extremely.
It must be borne in mind in this context that communication is more than a dialogue. It builds on trust and openness among colleagues, and results in common understanding of the organisational issues that have a long-term bearing on the future of the organisation. A formal communication can be from a superior to a subordinate, from a subordinate to a superior, intra-administrative, or external.
These communications may be oral or written. Informal communication originates spontaneously outside the formal channels and is the natural responses to the need for social interaction.
Within the organisation, whatever its style or form, cohesive informal groups develop. Extensive research has shown that these informal work groups have tremendous power in shaping attitudes, behaviour, and consequently, production. They share a set of beliefs, values, and socially acceptable behaviours.
In other words, group members come to think and act in similar ways, and this encourages feelings of closeness among them. In industry, at every level of organisational life, employees are bound together in informal groups and develop a common set of norms.
It is important to remember that these groups are not established by the management. They are generally beyond the control of the management, and they do not appear on the organisation charts. The influence of informal work groups is pervasive, and they are vital parts of the total organisational environment.
They can work for or against the management, by encouraging cooperation and increasing production or by sabotaging management and slowing production. A major finding of Hawthorne studies was the revelation of the ways in which these groups operate. One of the characteristics of informal work groups is leadership. There are many opportunities for conflict between the needs and goals of the informal work group and the needs and goals of the organisation.
If management is to deal effectively with the informal groups, it must recognize their existence and try to understand them. The informal group serves many needs of the workers. It can serve the needs of the organisation as well, or it can defeat them. Often, the ideals and standards of these groups conflict with those of the formal organisation.
New employees who do not conform to the group norms may be ostracized. The information actually transmitted through the informal channels may be inaccurate, distorted, a half-truth, a rumour, a gossip, or a private interpretation. It spreads with an amazing speed like a wild fire. If we suppress it at one place, it will pop up in another If we cut off one of its sources, it merely moves to another one — quite similar to the way we change from one channel to another on a television set It may use smoke signals, jungle toms, taps on the prison wall, or ordinary conversation, or some other method, but it will always be there.
It is simply there. Though the grapevine thrives on rumours, it does serve some useful purpose. A manager can utilize the grapevine as a positive aid, for a grapevine may turn out to be a barometer for the management as to what is ailing the employees and what ought to be done about it. It may be utilized to clarify and spread messages which the management wishes to convey to its employees and to counter rumours and half- truths by feeding them the real facts.
Though they serve many useful functions, at times, they become detrimental to the organisation. They can, for instance, include hundreds of people and half-dozen or more hierarchical levels. These three networks are the chain, wheel and all-channel. Although these three networks have been extremely simplified, they do not allow us to describe the unique qualities of each.
The chain rigidly follows the formal chain of command. This network approximates the communication channels you might find in a rigid three-level organization. It stimulates the communication network you would find on a team with a strong leader. The all-channel network permits all group members to actively communicate with each other. The all channel network is most often characterized in practice by self-managed teams, in which all group members are free to contribute and no one person takes on a leadership role.
For instance, the structure of the wheel facilitates the emergence of a leader, the all-channel network is best if you are concerned with having high member satisfaction, and the chain is best if accuracy is most important.
The exhibit below leads us to the conclusion that no single network will be best for all occasions. It can convey accurate messages with amazing speed.
It can also distort and filter messages beyond recognition. If your client prefers the personal touch of a phone call, build that into your plan too. Set a cadence for communication. Establishing a regular frequency for communication streamlines the process by setting clear expectations from the get-go. This not only frees you from fielding random requests for status updates. It also enables project members to carve out space for important meetings and reports ahead of time.
Identify the owner and stakeholders. Assigning ownership creates accountability so your carefully crafted plan can reach its full potential. That way key players come prepared to provide updates when needed.A major finding of Hawthorne studies was the revelation of the ways in which these groups operate. Many people don't put much thought into their informal communications. So is an e-mail from a team leader to the members of her team, reminding them of an upcoming deadline.
Alternatively they communicate with other businesses through the internet or similar systems and undertake e-Business. What is considered proper spacing is largely dependent on cultural norms. For example, in a singles bar, a glance, a stare, a frown, and a provocative body movement all convey meaning. For example in a bank diagonal communication will occur when a department manager in head office converses with a cashier in a branch of the bank based on the high street. Are they located together or spread out across several campuses or locations? Handbooks are also useful to supervisors and administrators for ensuring consistent implementation and enforcement of company policies.
Add major meetings or presentations as milestones to your gantt chart. It is a means and a very effective means for the solution of managerial problems and for attainment of managerial objectives. To decide if a new technology should be included in a communications plan, seek answers to the following questions Business Dictionary : Does the new communication technology provide a competitive advantage for the project by reducing cost, saving time, or preventing mistakes?
The result is that the mailing of a memo is no assurance it has been received, there is no guarantee the recipient will interpret it as the sender intended. This program was cited as a key human resources strength by the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award examiners when FedEx won the honor. Of course, written messages have their drawbacks. These are meant to keep employees well informed of the development in the business and to acquaint them with the personalities and activities of the organisation. Since communication is at the heart of effective managerial functioning, it is imperative to identify and to analyze the styles of communication which are used in an organisation. Therefore, communication must include both the transference and the understanding of meaning.
Supervisory Communication is an important dimension of management communication for proper functioning of an organisation.
Formal channels are established by the organization and transmit message that are related to the professional activities of the members. It stimulates the communication network you would find on a team with a strong leader. This network approximates the communication channels you might find in a rigid three-level organization. Project Management for Instructional Designers.
Co-operation also becomes impossible, because people cannot communicate their needs and feelings to others.
It must be borne in mind in this context that communication is more than a dialogue. Communication, therefore, provides a release for the emotional expression of feelings and for fulfillment of social needs.
To provide an attitude which is necessary for motivation, co-operation and job satisfaction? The management process has widely been discussed as one which embraces the functions of planning, organizing, leading and controlling, which are intimately involved with and dependant on, communication. Extra words only serve to confuse. Though the grapevine thrives on rumours, it does serve some useful purpose. Every time we verbally give a message to someone, we also impart a nonverbal message. Of course, written messages have their drawbacks.